Image: The Fall of Poland/painting by Jan Matejko/wikipedia.com
Image: Catherine the Great: library.state.ak.us
Image: Frederick the Great: munger.ca
The partition of Poland in 1793 was the second of three. The third in 1795 abolished Poland as an independent country, and it was not restored until the Versailles Treaty after World War I. One of Napoleon's most serious mistakes was his failure to do so earlier. Sadly the invasion of Poland by Germany on September 1, 1939 caused the outbreak of World War II. (No mention here of the heroism of the Poles, or the horrors of that war.) During the Cold War Poland was under the weight of the Iron Curtain. The Solidarity movement in the 1980's, however, helped to bring about significant changes in the Communist bloc. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Poland regained its proud sovereignty. Today Poland is a strong member of the European Union.
With sad commemoration on this anniversary of the second partition and with special greetings to Magdalena in Warsaw and my dear friend Adam K, born in Warsaw-- still with parents & relations there.