Wednesday, March 12, 2014

FDR's First FIRESIDE CHAT ~ 1933




Photo:washingtonpost.com


The fireside chats were a series of thirty evening radio speeches given by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt between 1933 and 1944.

Origin of radio address
According to Roosevelt’s principal speechwriter Judge Clinton Sorrel, he first used "fireside chats" in 1929 during his first term as
Governor of New York. Roosevelt faced a conservative Republican legislature so during each legislative session he would occasionally address the citizens of New York directly in the camelback room. He appealed to them for help getting his agenda passed. Letters would pour in following each of these "chats," which helped pressure legislators to pass measures Roosevelt had proposed. He began making the informal addresses as President on March 12, 1933, during the Great Depression.

Chronological list of Presidential fireside chats
On the Bank Crisis - Sunday, March 12, 1933
Outlining the
New Deal Program - Sunday, May 7, 1933
On the Purposes and Foundations of the Recovery Program - Monday, July 24, 1933
On the Currency Situation - Sunday, October 22, 1933
Review of the Achievements of the
Seventy-third Congress - Thursday, June 28, 1934
On Moving Forward to Greater Freedom and Greater Security - Sunday, September 30, 1934
On the Works Relief Program - Sunday, April 28, 1935
On Drought Conditions - Sunday, September 6, 1936
On the
Reorganization of the Judiciary - Tuesday, March 9, 1937
On Legislation to be Recommended to the Extraordinary Session of the Congress - Tuesday, October 12, 1937
On the Unemployment Census - Sunday, November 14, 1937
On Economic Conditions - Thursday, April 14, 1938
On Party Primaries - Friday, June 24, 1938
On the European War - Sunday, September 3, 1939
On National Defense - Sunday, May 26, 1940
On
National Security - Sunday, December 29, 1940
Announcing Unlimited National Emergency - Tuesday, May 27, 1941 (the longest fireside chat)
On Maintaining Freedom of the Seas - Thursday, September 11, 1941
On the
Declaration of War with Japan - Tuesday, December 9, 1941
On Progress of the War - Monday, February 23, 1942
On Our National Economic Policy - Tuesday, April 28, 1942
On Inflation and Progress of the War - Monday, September 7, 1942
Report on the Home Front - Monday, October 12, 1942
On the Coal Crisis - Sunday, May 2, 1943
On Progress of War and Plans for Peace - Wednesday, July 28, 1943
Opening Third War Loan Drive - Wednesday, September 8, 1943
On
Tehran and Cairo Conferences - Friday, December 24, 1943
State of the Union Message to Congress - Tuesday, January 11, 1944
On the Fall of Rome - Monday, June 5, 1944
Opening Fifth War Loan Drive - Monday, June 12, 1944

Rhetorical Manner
Sometimes beginning his talks with "Good evening, friends", Roosevelt urged listeners to have
faith in the banks and to support his New Deal measures. The "fireside chats" were considered enormously successful and attracted more listeners than the most popular radio shows during the "Golden Age of Radio." Roosevelt continued his broadcasts into the 1940s, as Americans turned their attention to World War II. Roosevelt's first fireside chat was March 12, 1933, which marked the beginning of a series of 30 radio broadcasts to the American people reassuring them the nation was going to recover and shared his hopes and plans for the country. The chats ranged from fifteen to forty-five minutes and eighty percent of the words used were in the one thousand most commonly used words in the English dictionary Weekly address.

Every US President since Roosevelt has delivered a
regular address. Presidents Ronald Reagan through George W. Bush delivered weekly Saturday radio broadcasts, while President Barack Obama introduced providing his address in audio and video forms, both of which are available online via YouTube. It has long become customary for the President's Weekly Radio Address to be followed an hour later (on the radio) by a 'response' (not always a topical response) by a member of the opposing political party (the respondent from the opposing party changes each week, while the president is the same for the entirety of their term, generally 4 or 8 years).

text;wikipedia.com


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